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OTHER ASSORTED POOL GAMES


RULES: KELLY POOL (Pea Pool)


Equipment: There are several games and variations of games that require the use of a shake bottle, or kelly bottle, as it is more popularly known, and a set of fifteen numbered pills. The most popular of these games is known as Kelly Pool. Kelly, a game for up to seven players, is one çf the most exciting and suspenseful games on the table.

Play: In Kelly, the fifteen numbered object balls are racked in the normal fashion on the foot spot. The fifteen numbered pills are shaken in the bottle, and two pills are given to each player. Players do not disclose the numbers on the pills drawn.

Play begins by all players disclosing the numerical value of one of their pills. The player showing the lowest numbered pill breaks.

Objective: The balls are played in rotation, the objective being for a player to pocket the ball with the same number as the pill being held. If another player pockets your ball legally, you throw in your pill immediately, and are regarded as killed, and out of competition.

Winning: A player is declared the winner, when he either pockets his ball legally, or kills legally the last player in competition with him.

Strategy: Some of the most important strategy comes into play, when the pills are disclosed for the break. For instance, if you have the 12 and 15 pill, and there are four average players in the game, you would want to throw your 15 pill, in order to let everyone else shoot first. You would hope that, when your turn came, you would have to run only three or four balls to win, instead of running twelve balls.

Irregularities: General rules and penalties apply in Kelly.



RULES: BOTTLE POOL


Equipment: The requirements for this game are the 1- and 2-numbered object balls, the cue ball and a kelly bottle. To begin the game, the objects are placed in their respective positions, as shown in the diagram. The 1 ball is placed at the left diamond on the foot cushion, and the 2 ball at the right diamond on the foot cushion. The kelly bottle is placed upside down on its open end on the centre spot.

Objective: The primary objective of this game is to score exactly 31 points before your opponent. If a player scores more than 31 points, however, his inning is ended, and his score is reduced to only the points scored in excess of 31. For instance, if a player scores 34 points inadvertently, his inning is ended, and his score becomes 3, the difference between 31 and 34.

Scoring: Scores are made in the following manner:
A. 1 point is scored for a carom on the two object balls.
B. 1 point is scored for pocketing the 1 ball.
C. 2 points are scored for pocketing the 2 ball.
D. 5 points are scored for a carom from an object ball that upsets the kelly bottle.

It is possible to score in each manner on one stroke for 9 points.

Winning: If a carom from an object ball flips the kelly bottle upright onto its base, the game is won automatically by the player accomplishing this feat.

The player reaching exactly 31 points must announce this fact before his opponent shoots. If this is not done, his victory may not be acknowledged until his next regular inning. If, in the meantime, his opponent reaches the score of 31 points exactly, and announces this fact, he becomes the winner.

Play: The starting player has the cue ball in hand. The players (no limit to their number) determine rotation of play by lagging, or by drawing numbered pills from the kelly bottle.

If the designated spot at the foot rail for an object ball is occupied after that ball has been pocketed, the ball is spotted on the centre spot. Should the centre spot be occupied, the ball should be placed at the head spot.

Players do not have to call their shot, but must make either of the two balls their first object. The bottle may never be the primary object of the cue ball. After making contact with an object ball, however, the cue ball may strike the bottle legally. A shot does not count, if an object ball strikes the bottle before the bottle has been contacted by the cue ball.

When the bottle is knocked down, it must be placed upright, with the open end down on the spot, or as close to the spot, where the open end of the bottle lay when the bottle came to rest.

Irregularities: The player loses his turn, if he forces the bottle into a pocket, or off the table. Should this happen it is spotted on the centre spot.

A player’s inning is ended, if he commits a foul. The points scored on the foul stroke are not allowed, and the player is penalised one additional point.

The following situations are fouls:
A. Failure to hit an object ball on a strike.
B. Upsetting the bottle by an object ball, the cue, clothing, etc.
C. Forcing the cue ball into a pocket, or off the table.
D. Upsetting the bottle by the cue ball before it has struck an object ball.
E. Shooting without one foot on the floor.



RULES: 41


Equipment: A kelly bottle and pills numbered 1 to 15 are needed for this game.

Objective: The objective of this game is to score enough points to total 41, when added to the number on the pill being held by the player.

Play: 41 requires the fifteen object balls to be racked in the normal fashion on the foot spot.

The rotation of play is determined by each player drawing a pill from the bottle. The player with the lowest number must break. The other players follow in ascending order.

Before the actual start of play, players draw another pill from the bottle, the number of which is not disclosed.

Point values correspond to the numerical value of the object ball pocketed.

An inning consists of one shot only, whether or not a ball is pocketed.

Winning: A player is declared the winner, when he attains a score of 41 exactly, including the numerical value of his pill.

The game is also over when all of the balls are pocketed without a player reaching 41. Should this happen, the player with the score closest to 41 is the winner.

Safety Play: Safety play in 41 demands that the cue ball be driven to a rail before or after contacting an object ball. A scratch is called, if this is not done, and the guilty player owes a ball to the table.

Irregularities: A scratch is called, when a player misses or pockets the cue ball. On a scratch the player must give up any balls that may have been pocketed on that shot, plus one additional ball as a penalty. If he has scored more than one ball legally, he may spot the ball of his choice. If a player owes the table a ball, however, and has none to his credit, he must spot the first ball he scores. Should he owe the table a ball, and pockets more than one ball on a shot, he may spot the ball of his choice.

A player scoring more than 41 points has burst, and must spot all of the balls he has scored. The last ball scored must be placed on, or as close to as possible to, the foot spot. A player, who bursts, may draw a new number, if he wishes. A player who bursts, without declaring so, is disqualified from further play in that game.



RULES: FIFTEEN BALL


Equipment: For this game the fifteen numbered balls are racked in a triangle on the foot spot. The 15 ball is placed at the apex of the triangle on the foot spot, with the next highest balls in value placed behind the 15 ball, and all lower numbered balls to the rear of the rack.


Objective: The objective in Fifteen Ball is to score 61 points first. The numerical value of each ball pocketed by a player is credited to his points total. For instance, if, on the break, a player pockets the 6 ball, his points total at that moment would be 6 points.


Play: The breaking player is determined by lagging or the toss of a coin, and starts with the cue ball in hand. On the break shot, it is required that a ball be pocketed, or at least two object balls driven to a cushion. A call is not necessary on the break.

Player receives credit for all balls pocketed on a single stroke. Call shots are not necessary in this game.

Safety Play: Every time a shot is taken by a player, a ball must be pocketed, or an object ball must be driven to a rail, or the cue ball must be made to carom off an object ball into a cushion.

Irregularities: A 3-point penalty is levied against a player for the following reasons:
1. If the player fails to pocket a ball, or drive two object balls to a cushion on the break. He also is required, if his opponent wishes, to rerack the balls, and break again, with a 3-point penalty assessed for each succeeding failure.
2. If a player scratches the cue ball into a pocket.
3. If a player, during the course of play, does not pocket an object ball, or drive one to a cushion, or if the cue ball does not contact the cushion after hitting an object ball.
4. If a player forces the cue ball off of the table.
5. Shooting out of turn. If this error is not detected by the opponent, and a score is made, the player continues shooting.
6. Interference with the cue ball after a shot.
7. Shooting while a ball is in motion.
8. Failure to have at least one foot on the floor while shooting.

If a player commits more than one foul on the same stroke, he is penalised for one foul only, and loses only 3 points.

In the case of a tie, the players may spot the 15 ball, lag for the first shot, and open play with the cue ball in hand behind the head string. The player scoring the 15 ball first wins.



RULES: ROTATION


Equipment: A cue ball and fifteen object balls are used in rotation. The object balls are racked in the triangle, with the 1 ball on the foot spot, the 2 in the left triangle apex, and the 3 ball in the right triangle apex.

Objective: The winner of this game is that player or team scoring 61 points first. Each ball pocketed scores 1 point.

Play: The order of play is determined, and the player designated to break starts with the cue ball in hand.

It is compulsory that the 1 ball be the first object ball. Failure to contact the 1 ball on the break shot is an error, and ends that player's inning. Any balls pocketed on this illegal stroke are spotted. The next player accepts balls in position, and continues, with the 1 ball as the object.

Object balls must be pocketed in numerical order, and the lowest numbered ball must be the first ball contacted on each

stroke. Failure is an error, and ends that player's inning.

Balls, other than the object ball, that are pocketed after legal contact with the object ball, are credited to the player's score. At all times the object ball must be the lowest numbered ball on the table.

A cue ball scratch ends the players inning, and balls pocketed on the scratch shot are spotted. Balls to be spotted are placed on the long string running from the foot spot to the centre diamond of the foot rail.

Balls must be spotted in numerical order, with the lowest numbered ball directly on the foot spot, and all successive balls frozen in order behind it on the string.

An object ball or cue ball resting on the long string is never moved to make room for spotting a ball. In this case balls to be spotted are placed either in front of or behind these interfering balls. If the entire string between the foot spot and foot rail should become filled up, balls to be spotted should be placed in front of the foot spot, as close as possible to the spot.

An object ball is spotted, if it jumps the table. If player, on a legal shot, pockets a ball, but also causes one or more object balls to jump the table, he may continue to play after spotting the jumped balls, and is credited with the balls he pocketed on that stroke.

If no score is made, a player's inning is ended.

It is an error at any time, if the cue ball jumps the table. In this case, the inning is ended. Balls pocketed on that stroke are spotted, and the opponent steps to the table with the cue ball in hand.



RULES: HONDURAN ROTATION


Equipment: A cue ball and fifteen object balls are used in rotation.

A very challenging multi-player game of rotation pool played almost exclusively in his native Honduras.

The balls are set up as shown, one ball on foot spot, and the rest in ascending order placed frozen at the diamonds, as shown. Each ball is worth its number in points (15 ball worth 15 points, 3 ball worth 3, etc). Sixty one points wins the game, or highest score if more than two are playing. There is no safety play. If you miss your ball, that value is deducted from your score. If you hit the wrong ball, that value is deducted. If a scratch in the pocket, then must shoot forward from the headstring (as in straight pool). If table scratch, then leave cue ball in position.

The opening shot on the one-ball is a soft spot shot, with the cue ball gently dislodging the 3-ball, which, after sinking the 2-ball, allows a draw off the 3 into the 5, and leaving position on the 4. The 5 can then go into the side, or far corner(s) and get position on the 6. The game tests all your skills, especially banks, multi-rail positioning, nudging balls, etc. The 7 ball is almost always banked, one way or the other. It's rare to play the 7-8-9 combination, but can be done. Once you get past the 9, position on the 10, 11, and 12 are relatively straightforward because the opposite rail is now clear. Trouble comes again with the 13, 14, and 15. One strategy is to try to dislodge the 15 when playing the 2 ball (or when playing the 4-ball, as shown), so that the 13/14 combo can be played, otherwise it's back to banking one or more of the remaining balls.



RULES: LINE-UP



Equipment: This game requires the cue ball and fifteen object balls. The object balls are racked on the foot spot in the normal fashion, with the starting player having the cue ball in hand.

Objective: The winner of this game is the player who scores an agreed number of points first. This game is usually played for at least 25 points. Each ball pocketed scores 1 point.

Play: Every shot in this game must be a called shot. Each player is credited with 1 point for every ball pocketed legally.

A 2-point penalty is assessed, if the starting player does not pocket a called ball in the rack or drive two object balls to a cushion. The opposing player may insist that the starting player repeat his break shot, until he fulfils the break shot requirements. A 2-point penalty is imposed for each succeeding failure.

At the conclusion of each inning, the player records his points scored. He then spots all of the balls pocketed on the long string line.

If a player scores all fifteen balls, they are respotted on the long string line. The player then continues shooting with the cue ball from where it came to rest after the previous shot.

General rules for 14.1 Continuous apply in Line-Up.



RULES: COWBOY


This game combines the respective skills and demands of carom and pocket billiards.

Equipment: The game is played with the cue ball and the 1, 3 and 5 object balls. The object balls are placed as follows: the 3 ball on the foot spot; the 5 ball on the centre spot, and the 1 ball on the head spot.

Objective: The object of this game is to score exactly 101 points. The scoring must be done in three segments: one of 90 points, one of 10 points, and one of 1 point.

Play: The starting player, with the cue ball in hand, must begin play from behind the head string, with the 3 ball as the first object ball.

The first 90 points must be scored using the following point values:
A. 1 point is scored for a carom on two object balls.
B. 2 points are scored for a carom on three object balls.
C. The face value is scored for pocketing an object ball. For instance, the 3 ball, if pocketed legally, gives the player 3 points.

After each player attains the score of 90 points exactly, he must make the next 10 points by carom scores only.

After scoring 100 points, the last point is scored by a carom shot of the cue ball off the 1 ball into a pocket called by the player. The cue ball must not contact a second object ball before the cue ball goes into the pocket. If the cue ball is potted in a pocket not called, the player loses all the points scored in the inning.

Special rules:
A. An object ball, when pocketed, must be placed on its original spot.
B. Should the original spot be occupied, the ball or balls to be spotted must be held off of the table until spots become open.
C. If a player with exactly 100 points is at the table, and the 1 ball is pocketed, he may have the balls spotted, as in the beginning of the game, and commence play with the cue ball in hand from behind the head string.
D. A player with exactly 90 points loses his turn and the points scored in that inning, if he pockets an object ball while scoring from 91 to 100.
E. Except for the 101st point, the player loses his inning and any points scored for pocketing the cue ball.
F. Should a player force the cue ball off the table, his inning is ended, and any points scored are erased.
C. When a cue ball is scratched into a pocket, the incoming player, with cue ball in hand, must resume play from behind the head string. He must play to, and contact, an object ball or cushion in front of the head strip.
H. When a player with 100 points fails to hit the 1 ball in his attempt to make the 101st point, his turn is lost and all points scored in that inning are erased.
I. When the cue ball is frozen to an object ball, the player must move the object ball with his shot, and drive the cue ball to a rail. A scratch is called upon failure, and the player's turn and points made in that inning are lost.
J. Should a player pocket the cue ball twice consecutively, without touching an object ball, he forfeits the game.



RULES: CRIBBAGE



Equipment: Cribbage is played with the normal rack of fifteen balls and the white cue ball. Balls are racked in any order on the foot spot, and play commences with the cue ball in hand.

Objective: There are 8 possible points to be scored in the game of Cribbage. The winner of the game is the player who scores the majority of the possible points. Each point is called a cribbage.

Play: Playing rotation is determined by lag, with the starting player required to abide by the break shot requirements of 14.1 Continuous Pool. It is not necessary to call a shot on the break.

A player is credited on the break with any ball he pockets, unless he does not break according to the regulations. If he violates a rule, he is assessed a 1-point penalty, and must break again. Should he miss a second attempt, the incoming player accepts the balls as they lie.

To score a cribbage, the player must pocket two balls in the same inning, whose face value totals 15. For instance, if he scores the 11 and 4 balls, which total 15, he has scored 1 point, or a cribbage.

A cribbage score can be no more than two balls. For instance, a total of 15 points made up by scoring the 2, 9 and 4 balls is an error, and ends the player's inning. These balls are spotted before the incoming player shoots.

If a player pockets only one ball in an inning, the pocketed ball must be spotted. The last ball on the table, under the scoring requirements, will be the 15 ball. The player pocketing the 15 ball after all the others have been pocketed, is credited with a cribbage.

A player may score as many cribbages as he can in the same inning.

All balls pocketed on legal cribbages remain in the pockets.

Penalties: All fouls cost the offending player one point in this game.



RULES: GOLF


Equipment: The game of Golf is played with a cue ball and one object ball. The object ball may be any one of the fifteen numbered balls.

Objective: The winner of this game is the player playing the six 'holes' of golf in the fewest possible strokes.

Play: The rotation of play is determined by lagging. To begin play, the cue ball is placed on the centre spot, with the object ball on the foot spot, as shown in the diagram.

The starting player must attempt to bank the object ball off the foot cushion on the first stroke into 'hole number 1'.

Should he miss, he continues to shoot until he pockets the ball. All succeeding shots may be banks or straight-ins, as the player chooses.

When the ball is pocketed, the number of strokes taken becomes the players score for the first 'hole'.

The next player at the table starts with the balls in the same position, with the cue ball in the centre spot, and the object ball on the foot spot. He also must attempt a bank shot from the foot rail on his first stroke, trying to score the ball in 'hole number 1'. If he misses, he continues shooting until the ball is scored. His number of strokes is noted as his score for the first 'hole'.

On each succeeding 'hole', the players start by spotting the object ball on the foot spot, with the cue ball left where it came to rest after the previous player scored his 'hole'.

Players on succeeding 'holes' are not required to bank any shot. Each player continues to shoot, until the ball is pocketed in the proper 'hole', his number of strokes being recorded, and added to his score.

Winning: The player completing the six 'holes' in the fewest strokes is the game winner.

General rules:
A. After the first 'hole', the cue ball is always played from where it came to rest after the preceding stroke.
B. A player commits a scratch, when he pockets the cue ball or object ball in the wrong pocket. The penalty for a scratch is 4 points. Scratched balls are spotted, and the player continues shooting until his 'hole' is made legally.
C. On every shot, the player must either pocket the object ball in the proper pocket, cause the object ball to touch a cushion, or cause the cue ball to touch a cushion after hitting the object ball. If this is not done, the player is guilty of a foul, and 4 strokes are added to his score. A player continues shooting until his 'hole' is made legally.
D. If the cue ball is spotted, and the object ball lies within the head string, the player shoots at the object ball in that position.



RULES: MR. & MRS.


This game was devised to encourage women to play, as it tends to equalise the skill of the players. The game combines aspects of Rotation and basic pocket billiards.

Equipment: This game is played with the normal rack of fifteen object balls and the cue ball. The object balls are racked on the foot spot, as in Rotation.

Objective: The main objective of this game is for a player or team to score 61 points before the opposition. Points are scored according to the face value of the ball pocketed.

Play: The rotation of play is determined by lagging. The starting player has the cue ball in hand.

On the break, the player must make the 1 ball on the foot spot his first object ball. That player or team is credited with all balls scored on the break, if the 1 ball is contacted first by the cue ball.

On succeeding plays, the men are required to play all balls in rotation, and pocket the object balls in numerical order. The women may attempt to score the ball of their choice. Players are not required to call their shots, and all balls pocketed on combination or kiss shots are legal, except that the man must always hit the lowest ball on the table first.

Should a man pocket an object ball not in rotation, his inning is ended, and the ball is spotted.

Irregularities: If any player scratches the cue ball into a pocket, his inning is ended, and the object balls pocketed on that stroke, if any, are also spotted. Balls should be spotted in numerical order, as in Rotation, from the foot spot back towards the foot rail.

Should an incoming player, with cue ball in hand as the result of a previous player's scratch, be required to hit the lowest numbered ball behind the head string, the low ball must be spotted on the foot spot.



RULES: ONE AND NINE BALL



One and Nine Ball is a game for four players.

Equipment: It is played with the normal rack of fifteen object balls and a cue ball. The general rules of 14.1 Continuous and Rotation apply. Balls are racked as in Rotation.

Objective: The main objective of this game is for two partners to score 61 points before the opposition. Each ball pocketed scores 1 point.

Play: The rotation of play is determined by lagging.

Partners: Partners are determined in this fashion: The player scoring the 1 ball is automatically the partner of the player scoring the 9 ball. Should the same player score the 1 and 9 ball, he becomes the partner of the player who pockets the next possible ball, i.e., the 10 ball. All balls must be pocketed in rotation.

In the case of a tie, where all balls are pocketed, and each side has 60 points, the player pocketing the last ball places that ball on the foot spot, and shoots with cue ball in hand behind the head string. Play continues until one side pockets that ball.



RULES: BASEBALL


Equipment: This game is played with the cue ball and twenty-one object balls, numbered one through 21. These balls require a special triangle, with the capacity to hold twenty-one balls. The balls are racked on the foot spot in the normal fashion. In this game the foot spot is called 'home plate', and the 9 ball is called the 'pitcher'.

Objective: The objective of this game is to score the most 'runs'. 'Runs' correspond with the face value of all balls pocketed legally by a player.

Play: The rotation of play is determined by lagging, with the starting player having the cue ball in hand.

After the opening break shot, the players must call their shots, ball and pocket.

Each player has nine innings, which are played in succession, without alternating innings with the other players. An inning is ended, when a player misses, or loses his turn as the result of a foul.

Scores are posted by inning on a score sheet.

Irregularities: When a player pockets an object ball, and scratches the cue ball into a pocket, the object ball involved must be spotted on the 'home plate'. Upon a scratch, the player's inning is ended.

Scratches are also penalised by the forefeiture of the last ball pocketed legally. Should a player be scoreless in the game at that point, he must spot the next ball scored legally.

If a player does not pocket the called ball, but pockets other balls, the illegally pocketed baIls are spotted, and the inning is ended.

If a player runs all the balls before his nine innings are completed, the balls are reracked, and the player continues until nine innings are completed.



RULES: POKER



This game is good for two to four players.

Equipment: This game requires the white cue ball, a special set of sixteen object balls, and a special diamond-shaped rack with the capacity to hold sixteen balls. The entire rack of sixteen balls is set up on the foot spot of the table.

Objective: The objective of this game is to score balls, whose face value makes the best poker hand, as in cards. The balls are marked as follows: Aces - 4, Kings - 4, Queens - 4, Jacks - 4. Fifteen of the balls are numbered 1 through 15, while the sixteenth, a Jack, is marked only with a “J” on each side.

Play: The rotation of play is determined by lagging, with the startig player having the cue ball in hand. The starting player is credited with all balls pocketed on the break, provided that no foul is committed.

If he scores, he continues shooting until he misses, fouls, or pockets five balls.

At no time is a player allowed to pocket more than five balls in one inning.

An incoming player accepts the balls in their position.

The game is over when all the balls have been pocketed legally. For example, one player may have five balls to his credit, another may have two balls to his credit, still a third may have four balls in his 'hand', while a fourth player has three balls in his 'hand'. In this case, two object balls remain on the table. The player having already scored five balls may continue to shoot in turn, in effect to improve his 'hand'.

Each time he pockets a ball, he must spot the ball of his choice from his 'hand'. He may continue to pocket and respot balls in an effort to strengthen his 'hand', until he misses, or scores the limit of five balls per inning.

A player with four balls in his 'hand' may pocket the fifth ball, and continue to shoot for the last ball in an effort to strengthen his 'hand'. A player with two or three balls to his credit will end the game, if he pockets the two balls on the table.

Winning: When all the balls are pocketed, the players then lay down their 'hands', with the best 'hand' winning.

A player, who has not scored five balls, is not necessarily a loser. For instance, if he has three balls, all Queens, he would beat the player who has five balls, but whose best 'hand' may be only three Jacks or two pairs.

If a player has only one ball to his credit, he defeats a player with no balls at all.

Irregularities: There will be times, when a player with five balls in his 'hand' cannot strengthen his 'hand' by pocketing any ball on the table. In a case like this, he will miss deliberately, rather than pocket a ball that would weaken his 'hand'. In making a deliberate miss, the player must drive an object ball to a rail, or cause the cue ball to carom off an object ball into a rail. Failure to observe this rule is a foul.

Each foul is a penalty of one ball.

A player may choose the object ball, off which to carom into a rail.

A player may choose the ball from his 'hand' to be spotted.

The following situations are fouls:
A. Failure to hit an object ball.
B. Pocketing the cue ball.
C. Forcing the cue ball off the table.
D. Shooting without one foot on the floor.
E. Touching the cue ball with anything other than the tip of the cue on a stroke, or touching an object ball in play on the table, other than by contact of the cue ball.
F. Failure to comply with the previously noted rule on deliberate misses.

Players may agree to use the balls marked with a "J" as wild cards, if they wish.



RULES: BUMPER POOL



Bumper Pool is played by two players, or by four as partnerships.

Equipment: Each side has five red balls or five white balls, one of each colour being a marked cue ball. To set up Bumper Pool, place two red balls on each side of a 'white' pocket on markers, placing the marked red ball directly in front of the 'white' pocket. Place the white balls in the same position around a 'red' pocket.

Objective: The objective of each player or team in this game is to sink all five balls of their colour, before their opponents do the same with theirs.

Play: Two opposing players shoot the marked ball at the same time, hitting first the side cushion, banking the ball into, or near, the pocket of their own colour. The player who plays his ball into, or nearest to, his pocket, shoots again.

Marked cue balls must be pocketed first. If a player sinks another ball before his marked ball is pocketed, his opponent may remove two of his own balls and drop them into his pocket.

In the event that both marked balls are pocketed on the first shots, each player takes one of his remaining balls, and spots it in front of the pocket, and both players shoot simultaneously, just as they did with the marked balls. From then on, they take turns, beginning with the player who pockets a ball, or is nearest to his pocket.

A player receives another shot, upon sinking a ball of his own colour in the pocket of his own colour.

Irregularities: In the event that a player causes a ball to leave the table, his opponent may place this ball anywhere he wishes, and can remove two of his own balls, and drop them into his pocket as an additional bonus.

If a player sinks one of his opponent’s balls there is no penalty, but, if he sinks one of his own balls into his opponent’s pocket, or shoots one of his opponent’s balls, his opponent may then drop two of his own balls into his own pocket.

No player is allowed to jump his ball over balls or bumpers while making a shot. The penalty for this is two 'free' balls for his opponent.

Winning: The first player or team to sink all five of their balls is the winner, except that a player forfeits the game, if he shoots his last ball into his opponent’s pocket.

Most of this page has been adapted from 'Minnesota Fats on Pool'
© Minnesota Fats Enterprises 1976



RULES: SEVEN BALL



Players: Two individuals, or two teams.

Balls used: Object balls numbered 1-7, plus the cue ball. The seven ball has a black stripe around it, the numeral seven is white in a red circle.

Rack: A circular rack is used. A standard Nine Ball rack can be used, if it is turned sideways. The balls are racked, with the 1-ball at the apex, and balls 2 to 6 running clockwise around the outside of the rack; the 7-ball is in the middle of the rack.

Objective: To win by pocketing the 7-ball legally.

Scoring: The balls have no point value. The player pocketing the 7-ball legally wins the game. If the 7-ball is pocketed illegally, the shooter loses the game.

Break: The starting player must make an open break, or pocket an object ball legally. If he fails to do so, the incoming player may elect to take the balls as they lie, and put the cue ball in play from behind the head string, or shoot the opening break himself. In subsequent games the loser breaks.

Play: A legal shot requires that the cue ball's first contact be with the lowest numbered ball on the table. The player must then either pocket a ball, or send the cue ball or an object ball to a cushion. Failure to do so is a foul.

A pocketed ball legally entitles the shooter to continue at the table, until he fails to pocket a ball on a legal shot.

Immediately after a legal opening break, the opponent chooses the side of the table on which he will pocket the 7-ball. Balls 1-6 may be pocketed anywhere. Pocketing the 7-ball on a legal break wins the game.

Fouls: Any violation of the General Rules of Pocket Billiards that is deemed a foul will give the opponent cue ball in hand anywhere on the table.

All balls pocketed illegally are spotted, and the opponent gets cue ball in hand anywhere on the table. Jumped object balls are spotted, without penalty.

Loss of game: A player loses the game, if he commits any of the following infractions: pockets the 7-ball in a non-assigned pocket after the break; fouls when on the 7-ball; pockets the 7-ball on an illegal shot; commits three successive fouls.



RULES: CONVERGENCE 8-BALL


Except when specifically contradicted, all General Rules of Pocket Billiards (as defined by the Billiard Congress of America) apply.

Convergence 8-Ball plays much like 9-Ball, but each player has his own balls, making it less of a turn-by-turn battle than 9-Ball.

Players: 2 (Multi-player variations are also described.)

Skill Level: Moderate to Professional

Objective: To pocket the 8 ball legally.

Play: One player is high, the other low. The low player's object ball is the lowest ball on the table at the beginning of the shot; likewise, the high player's object ball is the highest ball on the table. A player must, at some time during the shot, touch the object ball with the cue ball. Failure to do so is a foul, which gives the other player the cue ball in hand anywhere on the table.

Any ball and pocket may be called for each shot. (Often the object ball is called.) It is legal to call an opponent's ball.

A player continues at the table until failing to make a valid shot. To make a valid shot, the cue ball must collide with the object ball, and the called ball must be pocketed in the called pocket. Furthermore, the collision of the cue ball and the object ball must contribute to pocketing the called ball. For example, a player does not earn another shot for pocketing a called ball and then touching the object ball, because the collision with the object ball does not play a role in pocketing the called ball. (More specifically, there must be a series of collisions, including ricochets, from the object ball to the called ball.)

Winning: To win, the 8 ball must be called and pocketed on a valid shot. Any other time the 8 ball is pocketed, it is spotted at the foot spot. All other pocketed balls remain pocketed. (For coin-operated tables where the 8 ball cannot be spotted, pocketing the 8 ball without winning can be considered a loss of game.)

Break: The breaker has the low balls. The rack is similar to an 8-Ball rack, with the 1 at the head, and the 15 in one of the back corners. The breaker continues his turn, if the 1 ball was struck first, and any ball is pocketed. If the 8 ball is pocketed on the break, and the 1 was struck first, the breaker wins.

Failure to pocket a ball, or drive two balls (other than the cue ball), to a rail gives the other player the option of accepting a ball in hand anywhere on the table, or forcing the breaker to break again. Two failed breaks is a loss of game.

Fouls: A scratch or other foul results in a ball in hand anywhere on the table.

Handicapping: A one-ball handicap can be provided, by skipping the 15 ball. For a two-ball handicap, use the seven ball as the common final ball.

Multi-player variations: Multi-player variants are possible. For example, in a three-player variation, the breaker's object

ball is the lowest ball from 1 to 5, the 2nd player's is the lowest from 6 to 10, etc. A player wins by calling and pocketing his highest ball on a legal shot. The rack has the 1 ball in front, and the 6 and 11 in the rear corners.

Copyright 1995 by Steven F. Hoover.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute this document provided that it is not modified without permission from the author and this copyright notice is retained.




RULES: CROSSOVER POOL


Crossover is a rather unconventional two-player game with very simple rules. It is challenging for any level of player, and cue ball control is critical.

Players: Two (Multi-player variations are also described.)

Skill Level: Any.

Objective: Be the first to touch every ball on the table in succession with the cue ball.

Play: One player begins with the 1 ball as his target ball, and advances toward the 15; the other begins with the 15, and advances toward the 1.

In a turn, a player gets exactly one shot, in which to advance as many balls as possible. Players advance, by touching their target ball with the cue ball, or when their target ball is pocketed.

Even within a shot, balls must be advanced in order. Advancement occurs at the time of contact, or at the moment the target ball is pocketed. Cue ball collisions with non-target balls do not effect advancement.

All pocketed balls remain pocketed.

A player advances automatically past any balls that are not on the table when they are reached.

Shots are not called.

Break: One player arranges the rack as he chooses, but may not put both the 1 and the 15 in the interior three positions of the rack. The other player then chooses whether to begin with the 1, or with the 15, and breaks.

The breaker may advance balls, as on any other shot, but if no balls pass the centre string (line between the side pockets), the breaker does not advance. The cue ball may contact any rails prior to touching the rack without penalty.

Fouls: A scratch or any other foul results in a ball in hand anywhere on the table. Failing to make the cue ball contact an object ball on a shot is not a foul, but failing to touch any ball in two consecutive turns is a foul.

Advancement in a turn is not negated by a scratch.

Judgment: Judgment calls may be required in rare cases, where a player's next two balls are touched or pocketed simultaneously, since a player who touches or pockets his current ball immediately advances to the next ball while the balls are still in motion. Another player (or a referee) should judge the shot carefully, if such a shot is being attempted. If the events are judged to be simultaneous, all advancements are rewarded.

Handicapping: A player with a one-ball handicap does not need to touch the final ball (1 or 15), and so on.

Multi-player variations: In multi-player variations, all players try to advance past every ball on the table in increasing numerical order, with the 1 ball following the 15.

With three players, one player begins with the 1 ball, another with the 6, and another with the 11. After choosing player order, the last player racks (no interior 1st balls), the breaking player chooses a starting ball (1, 6, or 11), then the 2nd player chooses a starting ball.

Remarks: Not only are caroming skills and cue ball control important, but pocketing balls can be advantageous as well. It is useful for players to pocket any ball they haven't reached, which the opponent has passed. Defence can also be a deciding factor.

Copyright 1995 by Steven F. Hoover.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute this document provided that it is not modified without permission from the author and this copyright notice is retained.




RULES: WHITE HORSE


The game of White Horse Pool has an amusing origin. During the year 2001, two Pool players, Steve Avery and Jeff Latif, played Eight-Ball regularly at the White Horse pub in Poplar High Street, London. One summer evening they both had drunk so much that they unwittingly started to pocket the wrong set of balls. After a while they realised what was happening. Of course, the regular game was ruined by then. Rather than waste the rest of the rack, Steve told Jeff to play the more difficult set of balls. After his inning, Jeff told Steve the same. White Horse Pool was born.

Players: 2, 3 or 4 (or even 5)

Skill Level: Inebriate to Professional

Objective: To pocket the 8 ball legally.

Play: All the General Rules of Eight-Ball Pool (as defined by the American Pool League) apply in White Horse.

The only difference between White Horse and regular Eight-Ball is that, as soon as a legal break has been made, and the breaking player has ended his turn, the outgoing player always calls which set of balls the incoming player must play. This rule applies, even when one set of balls have all been pocketed, and only the 8 ball is needed, to win. Of course, when both sets of balls have been pocketed, and the 8 ball is the only ball left, there is no point in calling the set.

As the end of the game approaches, the play becomes more and more tactical.

The great advantage of White Horse is that it can be played by an odd number of players.

Copyright 2001 by Steve Avery.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute this document provided that it is not modified without permission from the author and this copyright notice is retained.




RULES: GERMANS


One evening in the autumn of 2001, Steve Avery and Jeff Latif were playing White Horse Pool in the Germans pub in east London. Suddenly Jeff had the idea to divide the balls into three sets, rather than the usual two. Based on this idea Steve formulated the rules for two games, Straight Germans and Combination Germans.

Straight Germans

Players: 2, 3 or 4 (or even 5)

Skill Level: Mediocre to advanced. You need to be good at escaping from snookers.

Objective: To pocket any two of the 3, 8 or 13 balls legally.

The Sets: Unlike regular Eight-Ball Pool, the balls are divided into three sets, instead of the usual two, i.e., 1 - 5 (low), 6 - 10 (mid) and 11 - 15 (high). The 3, 8 and 13 balls are the final balls to be played, and are subject to the same conditions of striking, pocketing and scratching, as the eight-ball in Eight-Ball Pool. In other words, it is like having three eight-balls on the table.

The Rack: The balls are racked with the final (3, 8 and 13) balls in the centre, surrounded by the other balls in alternating low, mid, high order.

The Break: If any one of the final (3, 8 and 13) balls is pocketed on the break, the game is won by the breaking player.

Play: All the General Rules of Eight-Ball Pool (as defined by the American Pool League) apply in Germans.

As soon as a legal break has been made, at the end of each turn, the outgoing player always calls which set of balls the incoming player must play, i.e., low, mid, or high. For example, the outgoing player may call, "Low." In this case, the incoming player must hit one of the balls, 1, 2, 4, 5, first. (Remember that the 3-ball is a final ball. It is a foul, if any of the final (3, 8 and 13) balls is hit first, while there is still at least one other object ball on the table.)

If a player pockets the last object ball of a set, he chooses and nominates the next set, and continues his turn, until he fails to pocket a ball legally, or commits a foul. If he pockets the last object ball of the last set, he continues his turn by nominating one of the final (3, 8 and 13) balls to hit next. He must also call its intended pocket, or play a safety shot against a cushion. If he succeeds in pocketing the first final ball, he then nominates the next final ball and pocket.

Pocketing two of the three final balls legally wins the game.

Even when final balls are the only balls left on the table, the outgoing player still calls the ball for the incoming player.

Two final balls may be pocketed with a single shot, provided that the correct final ball is struck first, and both final balls and their intended pockets are nominated. If, in such an attempt, only one of the nominated final balls is pocketed, the player ends his turn.

Tactics: Germans is a very tactical game, becoming more so, as the end of the game approaches. During the play, each player studies the lie of the balls on the table, before calling the set of the incoming player. A decision must be made, whether to call the most difficult set to hit, in the hope of getting the cue ball in hand after a foul by the opponent, or whether to allow an opponent an easy run of the balls, thus getting him to do most of the work, in the hope that he falters, leaving just a few balls on the table, which you can then run out. With more than two players, decisions are even more difficult to make; You need to consider the skill level of the opponents who will play before you return to the table, and the number of balls each of them is likely to run.

The great advantage of Germans is that it can be played by an odd number of players.

Combination Germans

Skill Level: Beginner to advanced. This variation is easier to play than Straight Germans, because a greater number of balls can be pocketed legally.

This is played identically to Straight Germans, with the exception that combination shots are allowed.

In Straight Germans your turn ends, if you pot a ball of a set other than the called set, unless you also pot a ball of the called set in the same shot. By contrast, in Combination Germans, potting a ball of a set other than the called set, as a result of a combination shot, enables a player to continue his turn, provided, of course, that a ball of the called set is struck first.

This applies also to the final balls. For example, only the 3, 8 and 13 balls are remaining on the table. If the 3-ball has been called by the outgoing player, the incoming player may call the 8-ball in a certain pocket, provided that the 3-ball is struck first. If he succeeds, he may then continue to shoot at the final ball of his choice, as normal.

Copyright 2001 by Steve Avery.
Permission is granted to copy and distribute this document provided that it is not modified without permission from the author and this copyright notice is retained.





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